Friday, January 19, 2018

Terraforming a New Planet: My Strategy for Success

I've been tasked with spelling out the plan for creating a new home for human colonists. This process of transforming a bare planet into a livable one is called "terraforming." And to reduce the amount of trial and error, I will pattern my project after our home planet - based on what is written in the rocks.

Here is my 12 step plan:

Step 1: Find the Right Size, Perfect Distance
I cannot over stress the importance of this step. If we skip it, the project will fail. We need the perfect size planet. If the planet is too big, the planet's gravity will hold too much atmosphere, resulting in crushing pressure at the surface. However, if the planet is too small, the atmosphere's gaseous molecules bouncing off each other will eventually fly off into space, because their average speed exceeds the escape velocity of a small planet's gravity. Mars is the poster-child for that scenario. It had an atmosphere once, but it's gone now because Mars is too small. Now, Venus is about the size of our planet, but she is our go-to example of a planet too close to the sun. A run-away greenhouse effect makes the average surface temperature of Venus 864° Fahrenheit (462° Celsius). We won't get many colonists signing up for that!

Step 2: Send an On-Site Crew
You won't be getting very far without a dedicated team of engineers, scientists and support staff in a comfortable self-sustaining residence. When things go wrong - and they WILL go wrong - you need a crew capable of fixing things before they get out of hand. The distances are far too great for command control at home to do everything remotely.

Step 3: Establish an Atmosphere
The planet will be a barren rock at first. So, without an atmosphere, any water we add would just freeze. And we NEED water. So we must enshroud the planet with life sustaining air. Atmosphere formation will also focus on generating tons of water vapor to prepare for Step 4. In fact, the resident crew won't see their sun for a long, long time. Humidity will be at 100%, with a pea-soup-like fog everywhere.


Step 4: Put Water Everywhere
The resident buildings will be air tight and strong enough to withstand high pressure, because they will now be underwater.  In this step, the foggy atmosphere will release most of the water vapor and precipitate on the planet as liquid water. We will keep this up until the entire planet is covered with water since we will introduce life to the ocean first. We won't wait for the atmosphere to be "human-ready" before introducing life, however. The early stages of our own planet had the same scenario. Part of the plan is to allow time for the organisms to live and die. That will enrich the silt that accumulates on the sea floor. You see, we are thinking ahead to Step 8.

Step 5: Let the Sun Shine Through
As the water settles out of the sky and into the ocean, our resident crew will finally start catching glimpses of their sun. Eventually, they will enjoy blue skies, fluffy clouds, sunrises, sunsets, thunderstorms, wind and the stars at night. They will have to come up to the surface to enjoy the beginnings of these atmospheric pleasures, though, because the ocean still covers the entire planet. We want that valuable sea silt to build up and don't want to leave even one section of land exposed to remain barren. We have important things to do with that organic matter. So let it coat every square foot of the planet.
Step 6: Add Simple Sea Life
Here's an analogy to help you understand why we start simple. Long ago, some humans had aquariums. If they put a fish in a fresh tank it would die. The tank was too barren and had to be seasoned by establishing a cycle where bacteria would convert the ammonia from fish waste into nitrite and then into nitrate. The latter being the least toxic to life. They could speed things along by adding water from an established tank that already had bacteria. As these chemicals came under control, they would add sturdy, inexpensive fish until it was stable enough to add their prized angelfish. We'll need to do the same thing in our new ocean. So, we'll start with bacteria, algae and hardy single-cell organisms like our planet's pre-Cambrian seas. The bonus now is that the algae will start converting CO2 into oxygen.

Step 7: Add Complex Sea Life
Now we'll introduce complex lifeforms a little at a time. Remember, our atmosphere is still not "human-ready" so make sure our lifeforms can stand the current make up of the air and sea. Most of these won't survive the transition to a "human-ready" atmosphere, so don't get too attached to them. In fact, why don't we have some fun and make some really crazy plants and animals. What we are emulating here is our planet's Paleozoic seas. We'll eventually introduce more complex life, in as many varieties and sizes as possible - including giant animals similar to our Mesozoic oceans. The more biomass there is to live and die, the richer the seafloor silt will become.

Step 8: Transfer Organically Rich Seafloor to Land
Next we'll expose some landmass. We'll bend the crust of the planet to form sea basins and continents. Even better! We'll make sure it is one landmass. A supercontinent. That way the dissemination of life will be easier (see Steps 9 and 10). We'll leave the majority of the planet as ocean, however, for a more naturally stable planet. The oceans are the lifeblood of the planet, driving the water cycle, the weather patterns and oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle. The built-up foundation of silt laid down in steps 6 and 7 will now provide some topsoil to support the land life we will introduce in the next step. We aren't just doing this so our colonists will enjoy a beautiful place to live, the ecosystems we are building are the key to a self-sustaining planet.

Step 9: Add Simple Land Life
So now we have some topsoil to work with, but we can't get carried away and plant a rose bush, yet. The soil will barely support hardy plants and small animals. Let's be pragmatic and start with algae, moss and plants that reproduce with spores. We'll save those seed-bearing flowering plants until later. We will include worms, insects and other creepy-crawlies that thrive on scavenging dead stuff, like the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. As we gradually add more complex land life we want something to clean up the mess and add to enriching the top soil.

Step 10: Add Complex Land Life
Now comes the fun part. We'll gradually fill the continent with complex lifeforms. Reptiles, birds, mammals and seed-bearing plants of all kinds. And again, we'll try to include as many giant animals as possible, to speed things along with a large biomass. In fact, if we didn't have to worry about our resident crew's safety, now would have been a great time to create some big, scary monstrous creatures. But, alas, we'll have to be content with more placid predators.

Step 11: Sit Back and Relax
If we did everything right, now all we need to do is take time off and watch our new world establish equilibrium. As more time passes, the more stable the planet will become. The wildlife and their environments will evolve jointly into thriving ecosystems. This would be a good time for our residents - who have grown to be a rather large population by the way - to take a much deserved rest and to enjoy the beautiful world they helped create.

Step 12: Bring on the Colonists!
The moment we've all waited for - and it has been a long, long wait. Terraforming a planet doesn't happen overnight. But all that effort was worth it, because the rest of the humans are coming in their colony ships. We pioneers who first set this project in motion have long since passed away, but our offspring should honor our memory by taking good care of their new home. They have been watching things unfold and waiting eagerly for this time to arrive.

Epilog
Why does this all sound familiar? Wait a minute, I remember! I read about a similar plan in an ancient book. The first and second chapters had two separate "creation" stories.

The first chapter was the blueprint or planning stage or spiritual creation - whatever you want to call it.

The second chapter had a very scant explanation of the physical creation, yet the order that was laid out was curious.

First, there "went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground." (Sounds like my foggy atmosphere.) Then man was created about the same time as plants and he was given a pleasant home. Why? It sounds like the workplace for an on-site manager to me. (Much like my resident oversight crew.) Then man was joined by animals of all kinds. When his job was done, "a deep sleep [fell] upon him"  and he was given human companionship in the form of a mate. He was probably made to forget about his role in the creation, too.

Hearkening back to the first chapter of the ancient book's planning stage, one of the first things discussed was the atmosphere, or "firmament" or "heaven." Then that atmosphere "divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament." This all sounds like my plan's Steps 2 through 4: the atmosphere, it's precipitation and the formation of an ocean.

Furthermore, the "lights in the heavens" were not "created" until the fourth day. Again that sounds like what I expected in my plan about the the sun, moon and stars not being visible because of the thick cloudy atmosphere. Even the mention of the "waters under the heaven [being] gathered together unto one place, and [letting] the dry land appear" perfectly mirrors my plan to start with a global ocean then creating a continent later.

I tried to pattern my plan after the history written in the rocks of our home planet, but it is interesting how closely it imitates the plan written in that ancient book.  That book said the planning took 6 days, however it didn't say how long the physical creation took. I bet it took a long time. Our little exercise in terraforming suggests that it would have taken a long, long time. (Read also: Science and Religion: Both Dating Methods Are Wrong)

Friday, December 15, 2017

Science and Religion: Both Dating Methods Are Wrong

Scientists stubbornly stick to the idea that the processes we see today have been occurring the same way for billions of years. This is called uniformitarianism or the Doctrine of Uniformity. It works with things like physics, but has no business being applied to studies of the past such as geology, archaeology and paleontology. We have no way of knowing for sure what our world was like 10,000 or a billion years ago. So, these theories will remain theories. You can not use the scientific method to test a hypotheses of something that can't be duplicated - like the past.

Consider this analogy. Remember Doodle Tops? It's the top with a pen in the tip. As it spins, it leaves a trail of ink on the paper. Let's say you spin one and it goes for a minute before it topples over. Now, what if you are allowed to only watch the last half-second before it falls over. Measure the time and how many spins you witnessed then count the tiny swirls in the line to estimate how long it spun. If you assumed it spun a uniform rate the entire time, you would calculate that the top was spinning for 8 minutes. Wrong! The top was spinning faster at the beginning.

The same would be true about our planet. It must have been more dynamic in ages past. Things have changed so much that you can't apply today's observations to the past.

One example is regarding the tectonic plates rate of movement. The slow movement today does not preclude that it was always that way. The continents could have moved at a much faster rate the further we go back in time and could have had periods of accelerated drift or continental shift - otherwise known as cataclysms. Look at this long list of past extinction events. Periodic cataclysms is the most obvious culprit. But that throw's the currently accepted eons of earth's history off by a considerable amount. So belief in cataclysms is taboo.

Creationists Are Wildly Wrong, Too!

I'm not going to let creationists off the hook. They stubbornly stick to their guns as well. It is clear that the creation of the earth was not necessarily 6 twenty-four hour days. Especially when the scriptures clearly state that a day in God's time is 1000 years of our time.

2 Peter 3:8
But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.

Psalm 90:4
For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.

Jubilees 4: 29-30
Adam died. . . And he lacked seventy years of one thousand years; for one thousand years are as one day in the testimony of the heavens and therefore was it written concerning the tree of knowledge: 'On the day that ye eat thereof ye shall die.' For this reason he did not complete the years of this day; for he died during it.

Besides, Genesis has two different "creation" stories.  Chapter 1 is the account of when God planned the creation (a spiritual creation). Chapter 2 has the account of the actual physical creation and very little detail is shared. And nowhere does it say how long that process was. So creationists should be open to a much longer creation period.

The above scriptures aren't the only ones that make it clear that the planning of the creation took 6000 years. See here. And to see the clarification about the spiritual (planning) versus the physical creation, look here.

Another weak link is the phrases "begat" and "son of." Consider that Jesus Christ was called the Son of David, but there are many generations between the two. So be careful when estimating dates based on lists of father and son in the scriptures. Scribes could have mistranslated those phrases, treating them as the same. You might think you are counting one generation when there could be many intervening generations.

The final word. Scientists overestimate, while creationists underestimate dates. It must be somewhere in between.

PS. One practice that makes me scratch my head is dating the organic material UNDERNEATH a stone block, pillar or other non-organic building material to get a date for age of the site. What? All that tells you is how old the organic material is.  The organic material under the building block could have been extremely old before the block was put in place. Unfortunately, it's in ways like this that you can force data to spit out dates that fit your pre-conceived notions.


Here are some links to some articles arguing against the accuracy of the most common scientific dating practices:

ICE CORES
RADIOMETRIC
CARBON 14
TREE RINGS

Additional reading:
Biblical and Scientific Shortcomings of Flood Geology, Part 3

Friday, November 17, 2017

The Last Ice Age Was Really Just the Ice Cap In a Different Position


The extent of ice sheets during the last "ice age."
Solve this puzzle, please.

It is common knowledge among paleoclimatologists that parts of Siberia and Alaska where ice-free at the same time ice sheets advanced as far south as Chicago in North American and well into Central Europe. 

Odd, right? How can that be?

Wouldn't the ice advance roughly to the same latitude worldwide?

Artist's rendition of the previous ice cap.
The answer is actually quite simple. Yes, it would! And it did. But it didn't advance much past the Arctic Circle. It was an ordinary, albeit larger, run-of-the-mill polar ice cap, not an age of ice advancing to the 40th parallel.

That's because the continents were in a different position at that time and the geological clues of the former ice cap are simply being mistaken for advancing ice sheets. Yes, it was colder then, but not THAT cold.

Let's use common sense. If the polar ice cap was as I say, it means that the mammoth remains found in Siberia and Alaska were really temperate animals, living in a temperate climate at the time.  At a latitude where they could eat tons of vegetation - just like their elephant cousins of today - rather than trying to survive on grass, moss and lichen. Neither today's elephants or the mammoths of old could survive in tundra. The stomach contents of the semi-preserved carcasses confirm this.

But most of today's scientists won't entertain this notion, because it means accepting that a catastrophic shift of the continental plates happened in recent geological history. And that would mean the earth is much younger than we think.

The accepted belief is that continental drift has been uniformly slow since the beginning of time. That's a BOLD assumption. Unfortunately, that belief is so deeply rooted that drift calculations are now used to date other aspects of ancient geography. That creates errors upon errors upon errors.

Too often we see older, unproven theories used to prove new theories by quietly pretending that the older theory is now fact. The "ice age" is just one of many unproven theories that have been around for so long that people treat it like fact.

It's time for a HUGE re-think.

Sources:
D. S. Allan and J. B. Delair, Cataclysm!: Compelling Evidence of a Cosmic Catastrophe in 9500 B.C. (Santa Fe: Bear & Co., 1995)


Friday, October 13, 2017

Cataclysmic Continental Shifts: What Causes Them?

Our planet has experienced several extinction events where, each time, almost all life was wiped out. They have happened with such regularity that asteroid strikes can not be counted on as the culprit every time. It has to built-in as part of the inner workings of our ever-changing earth.

That mechanism is continental shift.

Our earth experiences long periods of calm, where the continents drift slowly while the tectonic plates spread apart in some areas and subduct in others. This movement is kept tranquil because the earth's magnetic field keeps the magma in a semi-solid state. Why? Because the iron content in the magma link together to form a web that slows the liquid rock.

However, the magnetic poles come and go over time. During the times when the magnetic poles disappear the iron content in the magma unchain and it becomes more liquified and volatile.

You can understand this better, and have a little fun, by mixing iron filings with vegetable oil. The resulting mixture will be a viscous liquid until you hold a magnet to the container - then it becomes solid. If you get the mixture right, you can turn the container upside down and the fluid will not pour out - held in place by the magnetic field.

The same thing happens under our feet. When a magnetic pole disappears, seismic activity increases until a critical point is reached when all hell breaks loose. The tectonic plates accelerate rapidly. The volcanic activity at the plate boundaries darken the skies and poison the seas. Continents may sink and ocean floors may rise. The earthquakes, volcanism, toxic rain and widespread flooding kill the majority of our planet's species. They then become fossilized because of a rapid burial by the silt-laden floods.

The increased movement of the cataclysm causes the geomagnetic field to spin back up to full force and slow the movement of the plates again. These cataclysms probably last between a few months to several years.

The surviving plants and animals pioneer the new planet and begin to evolve rapidly to fill the now-empty ecological niches. Lifeforms that are born with a mutation that are now better suited for a different niche than their parent stock, diverge from their parents and thrive to pass on that trait in that empty and available niche.

Many new species are born. However, once a niche is dominated by the most efficient species, this sporadic evolution or "punctuated equilibrium"  stops. Any new individual born with a mutation will die off prematurely because it cannot compete with established species in either their parent's niche or the new one.


Darwin observed this on a small scale among the finches on the Galapagos islands. When they arrived on the islands, they had no competition for the various niches, so new species filled them rapidly - whereas the parent stock on the South American mainland remained one species due to the continent already having a plethora of more efficient fauna competing for the niche that a new mutation would vie for.

Additional reading:
A study of The cliffs of Joggins – Part II
Geologic Evidences for the Genesis Flood
Noah’s Flood & CPT Part 1
Is There Evidence That A Global Flood In The Days of Noah Really Occurred?

See also: Geology and Deep Time (strong evidence for a global flood) by Dr. Emil Silvestru

Friday, October 6, 2017

Unconformities Are Clues to Cataclysmic Extinction Events


The Grand Canyon is an open book with the history of our planet. But we hear two different interpretations of that book. In this article, I'm going to add a third. 
Evolutionists believe that each layer was laid down gradually over billions of years then carved out slowly over millions of years. Creationists say that every single layer was laid down, then immediately carved out in a matter of hours or days during the great biblical flood of Noah.
As usual, it is somewhere in between. 
The biblical flood was not the only cataclysm this planet has experienced. These recurring cataclysms are driven by continental shifts. They are regular events and a natural cycle of our living planet. (Read: Cataclysmic Continental Shifts: What Causes Them?)
Every so often the conditions are right for the tectonic plates to stop drifting and start accelerating rapidly. They dramatically shift position in a very short period of time. During which time the earth experiences volcanism, massive earthquakes and widespread flooding as part or all of a continent may sink while sea floors rise. The sediment from mega-floods wash over and rapidly deposit as the earth's crust bucks and jolts. Some events are large enough to witness a second round of flooding from a different direction, adding a second layer on top of the first layer. Multiple thick layers could be laid down in a very short time, then solidify as sedimentary rock in the following years.
Source: Geologyin.com
This is also why we see periodic extinction events (see table below) and an abundance of fossils. Every time this occurs the plants and animals get swept away and buried rapidly in mass graveyards - or fossil beds. These beds are a snapshot of the composition of life immediately preceding such a cataclysm. 

During the long periods in between cataclysms, fossils are almost never preserved and the evolutionary adaptations that occur are not preserved in stone. This is what led to the theory of punctuated equilibrium.
The multicolored strata of sedimentary rock have two variations. One has almost perfectly straight lines between layers and others have wavy lines. Some of those straight lines are later distorted by folding or uplift but originally they were laid down in one cataclysmic event in a matter days, weeks, months or years - not millions of years. The wavy lines are called unconformities. They are long gaps in the timeline where the earth was relatively placid and the last layer of sediment was exposed for a long time to erosion. The straight lines show no erosion, hence they were deposited one after the other in a relatively short periods of time.
Source: Studyblue.com
These unconformities are the clues to the order and magnitude of these ecological disasters.
Of the list of extinction events in the table below, the ones in bold type coincide with the biggest cataclysms, usually through continental shift, and therefore affected the entire planet, or nearly so.
Source: Studyblue.com
Our planet has been very volatile throughout it's history so nothing is going to be simple to interpret. These cataclysms range from a global event, with continental shift and the accompanying massive flooding and multiple thick layers of sedimentary deposits, to localized events. There are many different kinds of unconformities. Here are explanaitons of the most common types.


Source: Studyblue.com
Angular unconformity
This is when the layers laid down in a previous cataclysm or two are lifted up and/or broken through a later episode of mountain building. This occurs from earthquakes either from the collision of two continental plates or other faulting in the earth's crust. This can also include many years of erosion before and/or after the uplift. A later episode of continental shift will deposit layers of sediment on top of these deformed rocks.

Disconformity
This is where the layers laid down by a previous cataclysm are exposed to air for a long period of time and show evidence of erosion from wind and/or water. Then the next episode lays down another layer or two of sediment on top of that.

Nonconformity
This where the underlying layers are igneous or metamorphic. In this case, the previous cataclysm did not include flooding in the area, only volcanic activity and deposits. Or from a long ago event that has finally been pushed up to the surface by mountain building activity. Then the most recent event includes flooding and layers of sediment are deposited on it.

You can learn more about additional unconformities here. (Unconformities - Wikipedia)  But the bottom line is they are all markers of the periods in between cataclysms, local or global.

Let's get back to the Grand Canyon's open book and the third interpretation. The layers of the canyon were deposited during multiple episodes of cataclysmic shift and included major flooding in the area for each one. This happened long ago at the beginnings of the planet. Each event laid down one or more layer. There were at least 5 cataclysms during the build up of these layers.

1. Vishnu Basement Rocks: These are the oldest and are igneous/metamorphic rocks. They also show signs of uplift, so before the major sedimentary layers were deposited, this area was subjected to earthquakes and more volcanism rather than flooding.
2. The Grand Canyon Supergroup: this is an ancient event that not only laided down multiple layers of sediment, but which were later uplifted by the same volcanic/earthquake activity in the area.
3. The Tonto Group: This is the first of the more recent flooding events that laid down up to three layers in a relatively short period of time. From here on out, the seismic activity seems to have minimized since the intervening unconformities seem to be more related to erosion from wind and water in between episodes.
4. Temple Butte-Redwall-Surprise Canyon Group: These appear to have been deposited in the same episode or back to back episodes.
5. Supai through Kaibab Group: Again, these could have been deposited in one episode or back to back episodes. My hunch is that it was one: the Late Devonian extinction event. Because, remember this key twist. It is the sedimentary layers above the unconformity that preserves the life that lived during the period of calm demonstrated by the conformity itself.

These multiple layers that would someday be the Grand Canyon was left relatively undisturbed from the beginning of the Triassic period all the way down to the Quaternary period. It even survived the cataclysm that killed off the dinosaurs with little damage. However, the most recent and most devastating event of them all, the global flood of Noah, was the force behind carving out the majority of the canyon. As the continents shifted, sank and rose again, huge amounts of trapped water broke through and carved the general shape of the canyon as we know it today. The intervening years have heavily eroded the exposed rocks. And if you doubt that water can carve solid rock that quickly, you need to learn about the Missoula flooding that created the Scablands in the state of Washington. (Read: Randall Carlson and the Great Flood Enigma) There, the water carved out and carried away basalt, a much harder material than the sandstone of the Grand Canyon.

This canyon carving is similar to what happened, on a smaller scale, below Mount St. Helens. The eruption deposited tons of mud in the valley below, blocking the Toutle River and forming a lake. Later, that lake broke through and carved a deep canyon. If a drainage tunnel had not been dug to stabilize Spirit Lake, that lake would have made a similar breach, but on a larger scale. But even that is dwarfed by the inland sea that was unleashed on the Grand Canyon many thousands of years ago.

Again, the fossils deposited above an unconformity were alive during the unconformity. This means that the comet that left the worldwide K-T boundary may not have killed off the dinosaurs. Dinosaurs may have been extinct before the comet hit, since they K-T layer was laid down the sediment that covered their bodies. However, if the comet happened to hit in the age of the dinosaurs when a continental shift was pending, it could have pushed the planet's tectonic plates, already primed for a shift, to accelerate. Then the cometary debris may have been held aloft in the atmosphere until after the cataclysmic shift had done its damage - killing and burying the dinosaurs with the debris - finally settling out of the sky on the newly formed ground to leave the K-T boundary. Either way, the K-T boundary would be just the icing on the cake of the dinosaur extinction layer cake below it.

Most unconformities are localized. What we need is a world wide survey of all know unconformities. We need a comprehensive catalog so we can look for matching unconformities over large areas. They would help us understand the extent of a given cataclysm. And if we find certain unconformities present everywhere, then those would be the fingerprints of regularly occurring global catastrophes.

PeriodExtinctionDatePossible causes
QuaternaryHolocene extinctionc. 10,000 BCE — OngoingHumans[26]
Quaternary extinction event640,000,[citation needed] 74,000,[citation needed]and 13,000 years agoUnknown; may include climate changes and human overhunting[27][28]
NeogenePliocene–Pleistocene boundary extinction2 MaSupernova?[29][30] Eltanin impact?[31][32]
Middle Miocene disruption14.5 Maclimate change due to change of ocean circulation patterns and perhaps related to the Milankovitch cycles?.[33]
PaleogeneEocene–Oligocene extinction event33.9 MaPopigai impactor?[34]
CretaceousCretaceous–Paleogene extinction event66 MaChicxulub impactor;[35] Deccan Traps?
Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event94 MaCaribbean large igneous province[36]
Aptian extinction117 Ma
JurassicEnd-Jurassic (Tithonian) extinction145 Ma
Toarcian turnover183 MaKaroo-Ferrar Provinces[37]
TriassicTriassic–Jurassic extinction event201 MaCentral Atlantic magmatic province;[38] impactor
Carnian Pluvial Event230 MaWrangellia flood basalts[39]
PermianPermian–Triassic extinction event252 MaSiberian Traps;[40] Wilkes Land Crater[41];Anoxic event
End-Capitanian extinction event260 MaEmeishan Traps?[42]
Olson's Extinction270 Ma
CarboniferousCarboniferous rainforest collapse305 Ma
DevonianLate Devonian extinction375–360 MaViluy Traps[43]
SilurianLau event420 MaChanges in sea level and chemistry?[44]
Mulde event424 MaGlobal drop in sea level?[45]
Ireviken event428 MaDeep-ocean anoxia; Milankovitch cycles?[46]
OrdovicianOrdovician–Silurian extinction events450–440 MaGlobal cooling and sea level drop; Gamma-ray burst?[47]
CambrianCambrian–Ordovician extinction event488 Ma
Dresbachian extinction event502 Ma
End-Botomian extinction event517 Ma
PrecambrianEnd-Ediacaran extinction542 Ma
Great Oxygenation Event2400 MaRising oxygen levels in the atmosphere due to the development of photosynthesis



Friday, September 15, 2017

Atlantis Found: The Simple Answer Is the Best Answer

The myth of an ancient civilization being lost when their island or continent sank is actually based in truth. Atlantis, or Lemuria, is simply the antediluvian civilization (before Noah's flood).

If 70% of the earth's surface is water, it doesn't take much to realize that if the earth's crust were flat, our planet would be covered 100% by water. So it wasn't a single continent that sank. It was all of them!

There was more to this catastrophe than 40 days of rain. Rain was the least of their worries, because the continents sank and the sea floors rose, causing global earthquakes and flooding when the "fountains of the great deep [were] broken up" (KJV) or "burst forth." (NIV)* All civilization along the coasts were obliterated. Volcanism at the plate boundaries in the polar regions and the cataclysmic flooding added melting polar ice to the mix. It took 40 days for the continents to sink enough that the flood waters got to the elevation where Noah had built the ark and to buoy it up. No wonder Noah was ridiculed, he built the ark so far from the ocean that it seemed ludicrous. However, if he had built it on the coast he and his ark would have been dashed to pieces from the onslaught - along with all the other port cities and ships of the time.

It took a total of 150 days before the turmoil ceased and the waters began to abate.** It took a full year from the time that Noah entered the ark to the time that the land had dried up enough to leave the ark - which was after the continents had resurfaced (in different positions, the current configuration).

If these biblical details are new to you. Then it's time to re-read the entire actual scriptural account.

The rise of the myth that an advanced civilization disappeared when their continent sank, can be attributed to one of these two reasons:

1. The most recent supercontinent was just prior to the cataclysm of Noah's flood breaking it apart. In the memory of the ancients, their parent's culture vanished when the single world-wide continent sank.  Or an island, in the ancients' view.

2. The supercontinent had already broken apart slightly and the landmasses were much closer together than they are now. Therefor, after the flood, the ancients had a memory of a land beyond the straits of Gibraltar that was no longer there. That would be North or South America (or both). They sunk with the rest of the continents but resurfaced so much further west that they assumed it was still under the waves.

There are clues that indicate that the people before the flood had attained a comfortable level of high civilization world-wide. Think about it. If people lived to be more than 500 years old, you would expect the knowledge and experience gained would be put to good use. And that would explain the nostalgia the post-flood people had for their ancestors and their lost art and technology. Those oral traditions are the beginning of today's myths.

This myth has people looking all around the world and under the seas, dreaming up all sorts of magic and alien technology theories. It makes for good movies, but it is not reality.

The simplest answer is usually the correct answer.

(Read also: Why Did the Pre-Flood Civilization Build Megalithic)
______________________________________________________
* Jubilees 5:24-25
And the Lord opened seven flood-gates of heaven, And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number. (seven continents? seven seas?)
And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven forty days and forty nights, And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until the whole world was full of water.
** Jubilees 5:29
...the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. (risen sea floors returning to original depths?)

See also: Geology and Deep Time (strong evidence for a global flood) by Dr. Emil Silvestru